Vietnam-Nam, Wayewa da Al'adu - Masu sana'a

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Na PIERRE HUARD1
(Mai Girma Memba na École Française d'Extrême-Orient)
da MAGANAR MAFITA2
(Memba na École Française d'Extrême-Orient3)
An sabunta ta 3rd 1998, Tasirin Nationale Paris,

     Bkawar da masu sadaukar da kansu ga alimentation da dabarun tufafi (duba babi na XIV, XV, XVI), masu sana'ar na iya raba su kamar haka.

1° Masu sana'a masu aiki akan karafa (masu ƙima, masu yin tagulla, masu yin jewelers, masu sana'a, masu yin tsabar kuɗi, masu kera makamai);
2° Masu sana'ar yumbura (masu yin tukwane, masu yin ƙasa, masu yin fala, masu yin tayal, masu yin bulo);
3° Masu sana'a suna aiki akan itace (masu hadawa, masu yin majalisar ministoci, kafintoci, masu buga takardu, masu yin takarda, kafinta na ruwa, masu sassaka);
4° Masu sana'a suna yin ayyukan saka (Masu yin auduga, Jute, Rami ko siliki, masu yin kwando, masu yin igiya, masu yin igiya, masu yin tabarmi, masu yin jakunkuna, masu yin makafi, masu yin hula, masu yin alkyabba, masu yin alkyabbar);

5° Masu sana'a suna aiki akan fata (masu fataucin fata da masu yin takalmi);
6 ° Lacquerware masu sana'a;
7 ° Masu sassaƙa itace da dutse;
8° Masu sana'a masu aiki akan harsashi, ƙaho da hauren giwa;
9° Masu sana'a suna kera abubuwan ibada.

     A Mafi yawan masu sana'a sun kasance masu aikin yanci. Amma da Kotun Huế bai bambanta mai zane da mai sana'a ba kuma yana da bita na gaske na jaha da suka haɗa da masu saka kayan adon kaya, masu saƙa, ƙwararru, masu sassaƙa, ma'aikatan hauren giwa da kayan ado.

     VKayan aikin ietnamese suna da sauƙi, haske, mai sauƙin yi, daidaitaccen daidaitawa ga matsalolin da ƙwararren mai wayo ya kamata ya warware a cikin haƙuri ba ƙoƙarin yin tattalin arziki lokacinsa ba.

      SYawancin lokaci ana maye gurbin ma'aikata da kusoshi da kusurwoyin katako. Kayan aikin da ake amfani da su a halin yanzu sune: levers, trestles, ƙwanƙolin tsaga itace, latsa bikin aure, [Shafi na 188] ƙafafu masu haƙori, bishiyar axle da ƙafafun locomotory, ƙarfin lantarki (masu-ruwa, shinkafa-husking pounders), Motocin ɗan adam feda, shuka-harrows, ƙananan ƙafafun da pistons (wanda asalin ya zama kamar yana komawa ga al'adun gargajiya na kudu maso gabas wanda al'adun sino-bietnam zai iya ƙware kansa).

     Mercier ya jaddada halayen waɗannan kayan aikin da kyau. Amma, mun yi nisa da samun, a kan wannan batu, daidai da Rudolf Hummer na kasar Sin a wurin aiki.

     C’yan fashi a lokaci guda ’yan kasuwa ne. Kamar Romawa da kuma na Turai na da, suna ajiye asusu ba tare da yin amfani da lissafin alkalami da tawada ba. An maye gurbin irin waɗannan lissafin da abacus na kasar Sin. Ɗayan halayen zuwa Ƙaddamar da Thế Vinh (likita a 1463) wani aikin lissafi mai suna "Da fatan za a yi" (Hanyar lissafi cikakke) wanda zai iya zama canjin littafi ta Vũ Hũ, daya daga cikin mutanen zamaninsa, yana yin magani tare da amfani da abacus. Har yanzu 'yan kasuwa na kasar Sin suna amfani da abacus, amma abokan aikinsu na Vietnam sun yi watsi da shi. Despierres ya yi nazari na baya-bayan nan game da shi.

    Shop-alamu wani lokaci suna nuna sunayen masu shi. Sau da yawa suna sake haifar da sunan kasuwanci kawai, wanda ya ƙunshi biyu, wani lokaci na haruffan Sinanci uku (ko fassarar Latin su) dauke a matsayin mai kyau.

    Tya hali xương (rubutun Sinanci tch'ang) hakan yana nuna"ƙawa"Da kuma"inganci” bada Vĩnh Phat Xương "wadanda ke tsirowa har abada" ko Ƙaddamarwa "kyakkyawan ƙawa". Wasu sunayen kasuwanci watakila Vãn Bảo (kayan ado dubu goma), Đại Hưng (babban girma), Quý Ký (alama mai daraja) da kuma Yên Thanh (cikakkiyar zaman lafiya).
A akai-akai tsakanin 'yan kasuwa shine na đõt vía đốt van.

      Cna'urar na iya kasancewa a lokaci guda wata lanh or ta tốt (kyakkyawan ruhi, kyakkyawar zuciya), a wani lokaci kuma viya x ku or vía dữ (bad, mugayen rayuka). Idan farkon abokin ciniki zuciyar mara kyau or dữ ya fita daga shagon ba tare da siyan komai ba, bayan doguwar ciniki, don haka, abokan ciniki na iya yin koyi da shi sosai.

     Ia irin wannan yanayi, sai mai shago ya kawar da bala’i wajen yankewa da kona ’yan bambaro guda bakwai na hular kansa idan ma’abucinsa namiji ne, da guda tara, idan wanda ake so ya samu mace. Yana furta a lokaci guda da cewa:

             Đốt vía, dốt van, thốt thằng rắn gan, đốt con rắn ruột, lanh vía thì ở, dữ vía thì đi.
         "Ina ƙone rayuka, na ƙone mai taurin rai, matar da ke da muguwar zuciya, da fatan rayuka masu kyau su wanzu kuma miyagu za su shuɗe.. "

       Awanda irin wannan camfi ne, duk lokacin da suka fara aiki, ‘yan fashin sun kashe wanda ya fara wucewa da su.

Bibliography

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[214]

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NOTES :
Source: Ingantawa na Vietnam Nam, PIERRE HUARD & MAURICE DURAND, Kundin Nazari Na 3 1998, Tasirin Nationale Paris, École Française D'Extrême-Orient, Hanoi - Fassara ta VU THIEN KIM - NGUYEN PHAN ST Minh Nhat's Archives.
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