KYAUTA da ARTS na lokacin - karni na 15

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Farfesa TAN, HA VAN

    Tare da kwanciyar hankali na zamantakewa a cikin 15th karni, al'ada da fasaha sun sami damar haɓaka. The Lam Sonan1 tawaye da kuma 'yantar da kasar nan da suka biyo baya sun karfafa koyar da adabin adabin Nguyen Trais2 Binh Ngo Dai Cao (Sanarwa game da Kare Ming). Wannan ya biyo baya Ly Ter Tans3 Xuong Giang Phu (Ode zuwa Kogin Xuong - wurin da aka yi babban yaƙi da Ming); Nguyen Mong Tuan's4 Lam Son Giai Khi Phu (Ode ga Salutary iska na Dutsen Lam .a) da kuma Nghia Ky Phu (Ode ga Banki na Adalci), da sauran ayyukan da yawa. Sarki Le Thanh Tong5 da kansa ya dauko jigon guda a cikin nasa Phu Lam .an.

  Le Thanh Tong5, sarki-cum-mawaki, ya ba da gudummawa da yawa ga ci gaban al'adu. Ya kafa Tao Dan6, dangin rubutu. An kwatanta membobin 28 zuwa taurari 28 a sararin sama, kuma ana yaba su waɗanda halittar tarin baituka masu yawa. Karatun wallafe-wallafe a cikin rubutun Vietnamese ake kira nom7, dangane da akidun Sinanci. An yi amfani da rubutun a cikin manyan ayyuka na rubutu ciki har da Quoc Am Thi Taɓa (Takaitattun Waqoqin Bayanai a cikin Harshen qasa) ta Nguyen Trai 7 da kuma Hua Duc Quoc Am Thi Tap, tarin wakoki sama da dari uku.

   Kwalejin Confucianism ta sami babban tasiri, cikin adabi da kuma zane-zane. A cikin wannan karni, an gina wasu 'yan kalilan daga gidajen ibada na Buddha da kuma wawaye, amma an mai da hankali sosai kan ayyukan Thang Long.8 Cikin girmamawa ga Confucius, an sake gina shi a kan manya-manyan matakai kuma an gina wasu wuraren bauta a sauran sassan kasar.

     Sarakunan Ubangiji Le daular9 duk suna da sha'awar ƙara sabbin gine-gine a babban birnin ƙasar. Da manyan gidajen sarauta na Kinh Thien10, Can Chinh11 da kuma Van Tho12 da umarnin Le Loi13 a cikin 1428. Daga baya Hoi Anh ya haɗu da waɗannan14, Za a iya Dure15, Tucmg Quang16, Kim Lamuni17, Thuy Ngoc18 da sauran gine-gine masu tarin yawa.

    A ɓangaren kudu kuma an tayar da manyan dandamali. Daga cikinsu Nam Giao19 da Xa Tac20, inda ake yin bukukuwan addini akai-akai don girmama sama, ƙasa. Yawancin samfuran 15th sassinar karni wanda ya rage a yau sune gumakan jana'izar mutane da dabbobi. Dukansu ƙananan kanana ne, da zazzagewa da kuma rasa ma'ana, ƙimar rayuwa irin ta halayen zane-zane a ƙarƙashin daulolin Ly da na Tran. Wasu ayyuka na zane, kamar jirgin sama na matakan dutse waɗanda aka ƙawata da dodon, sun ɗauki halin mutuntaka da zarar an gina su. Le dragons, kamar waɗancan a Kinh Thien (Dakin Kotu) a cikin Ha Noi kagara, gaba ɗaya sun bambanta da waɗanda aka sassaka ƙarƙashin Ly da Tran19. Suna da idanu masu tawaye, da ƙaho mai ƙaho, da ƙashin baya, kuma an daidaita su a cikin matsanancin hali, tare da tsutsotsi guda. Gabaɗaya magana, Le dodanni20 duba bikin kuma sabili da haka, m.

   Ceramics, a gefe guda, ya haɓaka ƙarƙashin Le daular. Mafi mahimmancin mahimmanci shine gabatarwar shuɗar shuɗi wanda aka sanya abubuwa da yawa na kayan ado - girgije, dodanni, phoenixes, chrysanthemums, jatan lande, kadoji, lotus da furannin lemo - an zana su a cikin inuwa daban-daban akan farin fari. Halin bugun kirji na daji ya ba da sakamakon ƙarshe mafi ingancin fasaha.

Na biyu,h karni ya nuna rarrabuwa sosai wajen wasan kwaikwayon zane-zane. A cikin kotun, an yi hukunci da shi ta hanyar tsauraran dokoki kuma ya zama abin al'ada da tsararre.

   Tasirin Ming21 an ji shi sosai a kotun. A halin yanzu, shahararren nishaɗi - tuong (wasan kwaikwayo na gargajiya), yi (sanannen opera) kuma kida na jama'a ya ci gaba da jan hankalin masu satar mutane.

    Kotun ta yi niyya don hana shahararrun nishaɗin nishadantarwa. Sarki Le Tong Tong5 a cikin 1437 dakatar chco daga Thai Mieu22, haikalin da aka keɓe domin addinin kakanninsa. Sarki Le Nhan Tong23, lokacin da ya kawo ziyarar Lam Kinh a cikin 1448, wata rukunin samari da 'yan mata suka yi gaisuwar gaishe shi. Rt Ren24 a ciki suke kwaikwayon diban furanni suna sakar su cikin filaye. Yayin wani bangare na rawar kungiyar a wasu lokutan tana rataye kafafunsu don haka bayin sarki ke zarginsu da lalata

   Duk da dokoki da ka'idodi, shahararrun hanyoyin nishaɗi sun inganta.

NOTES:
Lam Sonan … Sabuntawa…

BAN TU THU
5. 2020

NOTE:
Source: Yin Vietnam. Ha Van Tan. thegioipublishers.vn, 2018. Hoto; wikimapia.org.
AN BAN TU THU an saita duk ambaton da hoton sepia mai hoto - samawariya.et.

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