COCHINCHINA

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MARCEL BERNANOISE1

    Faransa Indochina ko Unionungiyar Indochinese Union ta ƙunshi kasashe biyar: Harshen Turanci, Annam [An Nam], Cochinchina, Cambodia, Da kuma Laos.

    Cochinchina, Turawan mulkin mallaka na Faransa - yayin da sauran kasashen Tarayyar suke masu karewa- sun kafa yankin kudu na mamayarmu ta Extreme Asia, wanda yakai kilomita 56,9652 na 720,000 km2 na jimlar Indochina, tare da mazaunan 3,800,000, daga cikin miliyoyin 19 na yawanta.

     Cochinchina, iyakar arewa da Kambodiya da Annam, da gabas da yamma a bakin teku, an kafa ta ta hanyar kwari da kudanci da delta na Mekong Kogin, wani fili mai kyau wanda ya mamaye shi gefe ɗaya ta ƙarshen ƙarshen Cambodia alama Ha Tien [Haka ne] Tsaunin (Nui Sam, 215m) da tsibirin Phu Quoc [Ku Quốc], kuma a ɗayan ta gefen iyakar sarkar Annamite wanda ya ƙare a Nui Ba Den [Nuni Ba], ko Tay Ninh [Tah Ninh] Dutse (966m), zuwa dutsen Ba Ria [Bà Rịaa] (850m) da zuwa tsibiran Cape St. Jacques.

    The Mekong [Mun Ko] (4,200 km) ba a hana shi ba amma yana gudana kyauta, ainihin garkuwar teku, takaddara mai lalacewa ta hanyar lalacewa a cikin wata ƙasa da ambaliyar ruwa kowace shekara, yayin da ta tsawanta ta tsawon lokaci zuwa cikin ƙasashen da aka kama a cikin raƙuman ruwanta kamar yadda tekun ke tura ta zuwa ga gaci .

    Babban halayyar yanayin shine yanayin yanayin ambaliyar, yana iya yanke yanayi biyu a bayyane: lokacin damina daga Afrilu zuwa Nuwamba da lokacin bazara daga Disamba zuwa Maris. Duk da waɗannan monsoons, yanayin sau ɗaya ne: zazzabi ya tashi daga 25 zuwa 30 daga wannan ƙarshen shekara zuwa na gaba.

    Matsayin wuri na Cochinchina - mahadar hanyoyi da yawa da ke haifar da sulhu tsakanin mutane daban-daban - abubuwanda suka gabata na mamayar da suke zuwa daga kowane bangare da kuma ayyukan da suka biyo baya - yayi bayani game da bambancin jinsi da kuma yawan mutanen ta.

    Duk da haka, da Annamite har yanzu shine gasa mafi rinjaye (87,5%) (…) Bayan haka, yayin gwagwarmayar cikin gida, Faransa ta bayyana, a ciki 1788, don kafa Nguyen [Nguyễn] daular tare da Emperor Gia Tsawon [Gia Tsawon]. Domin ɗaukar fansa na kisan mishan Spanishan mishan biyu, don yanke hukunci Duk Duc [Wannan .c], wani hadadden jirgin ruwan Franco-Spanish zai iya kama Tourans a gefe guda, da Saigon a gefe guda (18 Fabrairu 1859).

    Bayan haka, Faransa ta mamaye lardunan gabashin (Gia Dinh, Bien Hoa, Dakina, [Gia Đšh, Biên Hoà, Mỹ Tho] 1862) zuwa lardunan yamma (Vinh Long, Chau Doc, Ha Tien, [Vikinnh Long, Châu Đốc, Hà Tiên] 1863).

Kungiyar Gudanarwa

    Gwamnonin farko na Cochin-China sun kasance kwararru wadanda suka kafa tushen tsarin gudanarwa, karkashin kulawar masu sa ido kan al'adun asalin asalin, sanannu ne na asalin asalinsu da matsayinsu da matsayinsu. phu [phủ], huyen [huyện], Cif da Mataimakinsa Shugaban Canton, da mashahuran ƙauyuka. A 1879 gwamnonin} ananan gwamnoni sun maye gurbin wa; annan mashahurai, da farko a karkashin sunan magajin gwamna, sannan a karkashin sunan gwamnan Cochin-China.

    An sanya wannan gwamnan ƙarƙashin babban ikon Gwamna - Janar na Indochina, wakilin Jamhuriyar Faransa.

    Gwamnatin Cochinchina, kazalika da sassan manyan ayyukan jama'a, suna cikin Saigon [Sài Gòn], babban birnin kasar Cochinchina. Sanatocin, waɗanda sune tushen tsarin gudanarwa, daga mashahuran waɗanda ke kula da kasafin kuɗi na birni.

    Babban birni da Mataimakin Shugaban adminasa ne ke gudanar da shi alƙarya. Ana shirya lardin su kafa lardi, suna da shugabanta, da shugaban larduna, da kuma wakilin gwamnan Cochinchina. An tsara wasu manyan cantons zuwa gundumomin gudanarwa wanda Doc Phu [Đốc Phủ], Quan Phu [Quận Phủ], Quan Huyen [Quận Huyện], ko ma ma'aikatan faransa. Gundumomin Gudanarwa suna haɗe da lardi. An wakilci sabis na jama'a a cikin larduna daban-daban: post, ayyukan jama'a, kwastam, sabis na gandun daji, ilimi, taimakon likita, da Treasure.

Tattalin arzikin Cochinchina

    Daga bayanan da ƙididdigar ta bayar, lambar guda ɗaya ta isa don daidaita ƙarfin tattalin arziƙin da na Cochinchina dangane da na sauran kasashen kungiyar: Cochinchina yana wakiltar 75% na jimlar Indochinese ciniki na musamman.

    Yawan wadatar da Cochinchina shi ne saboda ƙasa, wanda yake mai sauƙi ne a yi aiki, tare da haihuwa mai girma da ƙari mai girma, ko da yake kawai yana ba da izinin girbi shekara-shekara (yayin da Tonkin da arewacin Annam suna da amfanin gona guda biyu a shekara).

    Noma shinkafa ya mamaye duk sauran: larduna goma sha biyar daga cikin ashirin da biyu basu da sauran albarkatu. (Cochinchina yana ba da 8 / 10 na fitar da shinkafa daga Faransa Indochina, wanda yakai kusan tan miliyan biyu).

    Sauran albarkatun gona a cikin waɗannan ƙananan yankuna sune masara, waken soya, dankali, sukari, kayan kwakwa, kwakwa (samar da man kwakwa), wanda kayan aikin albashinsu ke karuwa kowace shekara a lardunan Gia Dinh [Gia Đàh] kuma My Tho [Mỹ Tho]. Lardin gabashin, wanda ya fi girma da katako, tare da ƙasashe masu launin ja ko launin toka sun dace da haɓakar hevea, itacen roba wanda samarwarsa ta wuce tan 3,000 a shekara.

    A cikin waɗannan tsaunuka, kusa da filayen gandun daji (bamboo a cikin Thu David Mot [Thủ Đầu Một] da Tay Ninh [Taiy Ninh], da kuma babban daji a Bien Hoa [Biên Hoà]), akwai albarkatu masu ban sha'awa irin su itacen kofi da itacen lacquer.

    Manyan manoma, masu aiki, masu haƙuri da ƙwazo, Annamites gaba ɗaya suna yin namo ƙasa bisa ga al'adar shekaru dubu. Buffalo, shine mafi kyawu kuma ya mamaye duk ƙasar, dabba mai filayen shinkafa.

    Amma gwamnatin Faransa ta so ta sa mazauna ƙasar su amfana da dabaru da kuma hanyoyin zamani na binciken kimiyya ta hanyar kirkirar makarantun aikin gona, dakin gwajin shinkafa a Saigon, filayen gwaji da lambuna iri (Can Tho [Cần Thơ], Soc Trang [Sóc Trăng], da Ong Yem).

    Bishiyar tana yaduwa kowace rana: ana amfani da tractor domin yin huɗa, haka kuma don bushewa.

    Babban masana'antar Cochinchina shine injin shinkafa wanda yake amfani da datsewar masara ta paddy don samo shinkafar. Manyan injinan shinkafa suna aiki a Cho Lon [Chợ Lớn], wani garin aboutan China kusan kilomita 6 na nesa Saigon [Sài Gòn]. Amma a zamanin yau sauran masana'antun shinkafa, da ɗan mahimmanci, an kafa su duka Cochinchina.

    Sauran masana'antu sun haɗa da roba da aka ƙera daga masana'antun mai ta copra, masana'antun sukari, murhun bulo, katako, ƙwaya, da masu saƙa. Hanyar da ta dace da hanyar sadarwa da kogi Cochinchina Ga lardunan da suke nesa.

    Hanyoyin da manyan motoci marasa iyaka, kekunan shanu, keken doki, keken hawa biyu, keken motoci, turawa masu wucewa, yawanci dauke da kaya, ana rarrabe su a matsayin hanyoyi na mulkin mallaka, hanyoyin lardi, da kuma hanyoyin gama gari. Hanyoyin mulkin mallaka na sha'awar gaba ɗaya sune mafi mahimmanci: N.1 ko Hanyar Mandarin Daga kan iyakar Siam zuwa ta Nam Ku [Nam Ku] Orderofar kan iyaka (Battambang a Dong Dang [Đồng Đăng]); hanya N. 15 daga Saigon zuwa Cape St. Jacques; hanya N. 16, daga Saigon [Sài Gòn] zuwa Ca Mau [Ca Mau].

BAN TU THU
12 / 2019

NOTE:
1: Marcel Georges Bernanoise (1884-1952) - An haifi mai zane, a garin Valenciennes - yankin arewacin Faransa. Takaita rayuwa da aiki:
+ 1905-1920: Yin aiki a Indochina kuma a cikin jagorancin manufa zuwa ga gwamnan Indochina;
+ 1910: Malami ne a Makarantar Far East of France;
+ 1913: Nazarin zane-zane na 'yan asalin ƙasa da wallafa da dama daga cikin bayanan masana;
+ 1920: Ya dawo Faransa kuma ya shirya baje kolin zane-zane a Nancy (1928), Paris (1929) - zane-zanen shimfidar wuri game da Lorraine, Pyrenees, Paris, Midi, Villefranche-sur-mer, Saint-Tropez, Ytalia, da wasu abubuwan tunawa daga Gabas mai nisa;
+ 1922: Bugun littattafai a kan Kayan Aikin Ado a Tonkin, Indochina;
+ 1925: Sun sami babbar kyauta a baje kolin mallaka a Marseille, kuma sun haɗu tare da maginin Pavillon de l'Indochine don ƙirƙirar saitin abubuwan ciki;
+ 1952: Ya mutu yana da shekaru 68 kuma ya bar adadi da hotuna da yawa;
+ 2017: Zuriyarsa sun sami nasarar fara aiwatar da zanen zanen shi cikin nasara.

Source: LA COCHINCHINE - Marcel Bernanoise - Hong Duc [Hồng Đức] Masu Buga, Hanoi, 2018.
Faɗi da kalmomin Vietnamese masu warkarwa an lullube su a cikin alamun ambaton - Ban Tu Thu.

Bincika Ƙari:
CHOLON - La Cochinchine - Kashi na 1
CHOLON - La Cochinchine - Kashi na 2
SAIGON - La Cochinchine
BIAN HOA - La Cochinchine
THU DAU MOT - La Cochinchine

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