AN DƯƠNG VƯƠNG (257 BC-179 BC, shekara 78)

Hits: 92

     AN DƯƠNG VƯƠNG (257 BC-179 BC, 78 shekara) shine sarki kuma mai mulkin kawai masarautar ạu Lạc, tsohuwar al'adar gargajiya wacce ke tsakiyar Red River Delta. A matsayin shugaban U Việt kabilu, ya ci na karshe Hùng sarki na jihar Văn Lang kuma ta haɗu da mutanenta - wanda aka sani da Lafiya - tare da mutanensa da U Việt. Wani Dương Vương ya gudu kuma ya kashe kansa bayan yakin da Sojojin Nanyue a shekara ta 179 K.Z.

biography

Origin

       Tantecedents na wannan adadi ne "girgije”Tunda kawai bayanan da aka samu ta hanyar rubutattun asusu shine sunan sa, wanda ya bayyana yana alakanta shi da tsohuwar jihar Shu a cikin abin da yake a yanzu Sichuan, cin nasara da Daular Qin a shekara ta 316 K.Z.1,2 Wannan kuma ra'ayi ne na gargajiya na Sin da kuma Masana tarihin Vietnam. Koyaya, akwai wasu matsalolin da ke tattare da yarda da wannan ra'ayi na gargajiya.3 Tarihi da yawa ciki har da Rikodi na Yankunan Yankin lardin Jiao,4 Ệi Việt sử lược, Ệi Việt sử ký toàn thư bayyana cewa ya kasance Shu yarima (ms. “蜀 王 子”, ma’ana ta zahiri: “ɗan Shu sarki“), Amma sun kasa bayyana ainihin asalin sa. Daga baya masana tarihi suna da cikakkiyar fahimta. A cikin Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mcc, marubutan sun bayyana shakku akansu Asalin Sarki An Dương Vương, iƙirarin ba shi yiwuwa a Shu yarima don ƙetara dubban mil, ta hanyar dazuzzuka, jihohi da yawa don mamayewa Wani Lang.5 A shekarar 1963, wata al'ada ce ta baka Mutane Tāy in Tsayi kamar mai taken "Ci gaba da karantawa”Aka rubuta. 1,6 A cewar wannan asusun, a ƙarshen Daular Hồng Bàng, akwai wata masarauta da ake kira Nam Ko (lit. "iyakar kudu“) A zamanin yau Tsayi kamar da kuma Guangxi.1 Ya ƙunshi yankuna 10, wanda Sarki ke zaune a tsakiya (lardin Cao Bằng na yauSauran yankuna tara suna ƙarƙashin ikon sarakuna tara.7 Duk da yake Sarki An Dương Vương mahaifin (ThuC Ku 蜀 制) ya mutu, har yanzu yana yaro; duk da haka, hankalinsa ya ba shi damar riƙe kursiyin kuma duk sarakunan sun miƙa wuya. Nam Ko ya zama da ƙarfi sosai yayin da Wani Lang ya zama mai rauni.1,6 Daga baya, ya mamaye Wani Lang kuma suka kafa jihar Ạu Lạc. Labarin yana da goyan bayan abubuwa da yawa, kayan tarihi da sunayen wuri a ciki Lardin Cao Bằng. Hasashe game da asalinsa a matsayin mazaunin gida an kuma bayyana shi a cikin tatsuniyoyi iri-iri, rajista, sujada da kuma tunanin al'adu.

Gidauniyar ạu Lạc

      Prior ga Mamayar China a yankin, arewa da arewa ta tsakiya Vietnam an yi mulkin ta Lạc sarakuna (Hùng sarakuna) waɗanda aka yi musu hidima Lallai da kuma Lafiya.8 A kusan 257 KZ, an haɗa su da Âu Việt jihar Nam Cương, wanda ke zaune a yankin kudu na Kogin Zuo, magudanan ruwa na Ku Kogin da yankin da yake da Kogin Lô, Gâm River, Da kuma Kogin Cầu.9,10 Shugaban Ubangiji U Việt, THỤC PHÁN, ya kifar da na karshe Hùng sarakuna, kuma ya hade masarautun guda biyu karkashin sunan Ạu Lạc, yana shelar kansa Sarki An Dương (Wani Dankunan Biyar).1

Gina Cổ Loa Citadel

     Kyin AN DƯƠNG ya kafa babban birnin ạu Lạc in Taka Vu, inda aka gina katafaren kagara, wanda tarihi ya sani Ku Loa.11 Ita ce cibiyar siyasa ta farko ta Vietnamese wayewa kafin zamanin Sinitic,12 tare da bangon waje wanda ya mamaye kadada 600,13,14 ɗayan manyan wuraren sasantawa na tarihi na kudu maso gabashin Asia.15 Sunan “Ku Loa”Ne Harshen Sino-Vietnamese karatun 古 螺 ( Tsakanin Sinawa (ZS) kuoX-lu > Turanci na yau da kullun: Ga Luo), a zahiri ma'anar “Tsohon Conch“. Bisa lafazin Ệi Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư, kagara yana da kama da conch,16 nuna tsarin gini mai ɗimbin yawa tare da katanga da moats.17

       Tya abubuwan da suka danganci gina wannan katanga mai siffar karkace an tuna da shi a cikin labarin kunkuru na zinariya. Dangane da wannan tatsuniya, lokacin da aka gina katanga, duk ayyukan da aka yi a rana sun zama abin al'ajabi a cikin dare ta ƙungiyar ruhohi da ke neman ɗaukar fansa ga ɗan tsohon sarki.18 Ruhun da ke cikin yankin ya kasance jagorancin farin kaza mai shekara dubu da aka kafa kusa da shi Mount Tam .o. Daga nan Sarki ya ƙona turare, ya yi addu'a, ya kuma zana gumakan don su taimake shi. A amsar rokonsa, sai ga wata katuwar kunkuru ta zinariya ta fito daga ruwan, ta murkushe farin kajin, ta kuma ba shi kariya har sai an gama kagara. Lokacin da ya tafi, ya ba da ɗaya daga cikin ƙusoshinsa kuma ya umurci Sarki da ya yi amfani da ita azaman haifar da bakan gizo, tare da tabbacin cewa da shi ba zai iya yin nasara ba.

       Kyin An ba DƯƠNG izini Cao Lỗ (ko Cao Thông) don gina bakan gizo kuma ya tsarkake shi “Saintly Crossbow na ernwararriyar Goldenwallon Zinare"(ba haka bane), wanda harbi daya zai iya kashe maza 300.8,18 Bisa lafazin tarihi KW Taylor, Bakan gizo, tare da kalmar don shi, da alama an gabatar da shi cikin Sin daga Mutanen Austroasiatic a kudu yayin karni na uku ko na hudu KZ.18 Da sauri ya zama wani ɓangare na Kayan kasar Sin; Tsarin da yake jawowa yana da ƙarfin jimrewa da kuma sakin kibiya da ƙarfi fiye da kowane irin kwari. An gano hanyoyin jan tagulla guda biyu a ciki Vietnam; yawancin hanyoyin an yi su ne da bamboo.

Yaƙi tare da Nanyue

      In 204 KZ, a cikin Harshen Panyu (yanzu Guangzhou), ZHAO TUO, a 'yar asalin Zhending,19,20 a cikin jihar Zhao (zamani Hebei), kafa masarautar Nanyue.21 TAYLOR (1983) ya yi imani a lokacin lokacin da Nanyu da kuma Ạu Lạc wanzu tare, Ạu Lạc na ɗan lokaci yarda da suzerainty na Nanyu, amma maimakon nuna hakan Nanyu sanya kowane iko na ainihi akan su, wannan yana wakiltar su ne kawai ra'ayin anti-Han na juna. Kamar yadda zaman lafiya dangantaka da Han aka mayar da, Tasirin Nanyue a kan Ạu Lạc laps Sojojin Zuwa Tuo ya halitta su yi tsayayya da Han ya kasance yanzu don turawa akan Ạu Lạc.22

      TBa a rubuta cikakken bayanan yakin ba. Zuwa Tuokoma baya da wuri da nasara nasara akansu Sarki An Dương aka ambata a cikin Rikodi na Yankunan Yankin lardin Jiao.4 Rikodin na Babban Masanin Tarihi ambata ba Sarki An Duong ko kuma Yakin soja na Zhao Tuo na ạu Lạc; kawai bayan haka Empress L Emp mutuwar (180 KZ), ZHAO TUO yayi amfani da nasa sojojin don yin barazana kuma yayi amfani da dukiya don cin hanci da rashawa Minyu, da Yammacin Ou, Da Luo cikin sallama.23 Koyaya, kamfen din ya ba da labarin wani labari wanda taken sa shine canzawa da kunkuru mai kunkuru daga Sarki An Duong to Zuwa Tuo. A cewar wannan tatsuniya, mallakar gicciyen ya ba ikon siyasa:Wanda ya sami ikon riƙe wannan giciye ya mallaki mulkin; wanda bai sami ikon riƙe wannan maɓuɓɓugar ba zai halaka. "24,25,26

       Unasara a fagen fama, ZHAO TUO ya nemi sulhu ya aika ɗansa Zhong Shi a sallama ga Sarki An Dương su bauta masa.27,25 Can, shi da 'Yar Sarki An Duong, MỴ CHÂU, yayi soyayya kuma anyi aure.25,28 Wani yanki na kungiyar matrilocal ya bukaci miji ya zauna a gidan dangin matar sa.29 A sakamakon haka, sun zauna a Kotun Duong sai Zhong Shi gudanar don gano asirin kuma dabarun Sarki An Dương.29 A halin yanzu, Sarkin AN YI wa DUONG magani Cao Lỗ rashin ladabi, kuma ya rabu da shi.30

       ZHONG SHI yana da Mu Châu Nuna masa giciye mai tsarki, a wani lokaci a ɓoye ya sauya abin da yake jawowa, ya kawar da ƙarfinta na musamman ya mai da shi mara amfani.28 Sannan ya nemi ya koma wurin mahaifinsa, wanda daga nan ne ya sake kai sabon hari Ạu Lạc kuma wannan karon aka kayar Sarki An Dương.29 Tarihi ya nuna cewa, a cikin kayen nasa, Sarki ya yi tsalle cikin teku don kashe kansa. A wasu sifofin, kunkuru ta ba shi labarin cin amanar 'yarsa kuma ya kashe' yarsa don cin amanarta kafin ya kashe kansa. Wani labari, ya bayyana cewa, kunkuru mai zinare ya fito daga ruwa kuma ya shiryar da shi zuwa masarautar ruwa.25 Hakanan akwai wata al'ada cewa Sarki ya gudu zuwa kudu zuwa zamani Nghệ lardin, gina sabon kagara kuma yayi mulki har zuwa rasuwarsa.31

        From da archaeological binciken na Ku Loa, Mai yiwuwa ne cewa fasahar soji daga Jihohin da ake Yaƙin an canza shi zuwa yankin tare da keɓaɓɓun makamai kwatankwacin sojojin zamani a Sin, yana bayar da shawarar cewa giciye na allahntaka na iya kasancewa nau'insabon samfurin sojoji”Horar da umarni ta Cao Thung, wanda “ba tasiri”Ba tare da umarnin sa ba.32

Legacy

     Vmasana tarihi na kasar italiya yawanci kallon manyan abubuwan da suka faru a wannan zamanin suna da tushe na tarihi. Koyaya an saita fassarar da sulhu na tarihin lokacin, kuma wani lokacin akasi, da tarihin fassarar tarihin Soviet game da tarihi.33 The babban birnin Sarki An Dương, CỔ LOA, shine cibiyar siyasa na farko na Vietnamese wayewa kafin zamanin Sinitic.12 Shafin yana kunshe da bangarori biyu na katanga da kagara a ciki, mai siffar murabba'i. Moats sun ƙunshi jerin rafuka, gami da Kogin Hoang Giang da kuma hanyar sadarwar tabkuna da suka bayar Ku Loa tare da kariya da kewayawa.34 Kim kiyasta yawan Ko Loa mai yiwuwa ya kasance daga 5,000 zuwa kusan mazauna 10,000.35

References

  1. TAYLOR 1983, shafi. 19.
  2. TERRY F. KLEEMAN 1998, shafi na. 24.
  3. O'HARROW 1979, p. 148.
  4. Kamar yadda aka kawo a ciki Sharhin Li Daoyuan a kan Ruwan gargajiya, Vol. 37
  5. Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mcc (欽 定 越 史 通 鑑 鑑 鑑 綱 目 目)
  6. OÀO DUY ANH 2016, shafi na. 30.
  7. OÀO DUY ANH 2016, shafi na. 29.
  8. KELLEY 2014, shafi na. 88.
  9. OÀO DUY ANH 2016, shafi na. 31.
  10. DEMATTÈ 2015, shafi na. 622-624.
  11. TAYLOR 2013, shafi. 14.
  12. MIKSIC & YIAN 2016, p. 111.
  13. MIKSIC & YIAN 2016, p. 156.
  14. KIM, LAI & TRINH 2010, shafi na. 1013.
  15. KIM 2020, shafi na. 231.
  16. NGÔ SĨ LIÊN et al., Ệi Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư "Wani Dankunan Biyar'' Quote: '':: 是 築 城 于 越 裳 , 廣 千 丈 , 盤 旋 如 螺 形 故 tr 螺 城 tr tr tr tr qu qu qu qu qu qu qu qu qu ote qu ote ote ”: ote qu ote 是 築 丈 , 盤 旋 如 螺 形 故 號 螺 城 tr tr tr tr tr tr“ ““ ““ ““ ““ ““ ““ ““: “:”: 王 “tr: 築 丈 , , 盤 如 ​​螺 形 故 號 螺 城 tr“ trDaga nan sai Sarki ya gina kagara a Việt Thường, mai faɗin dubu-zhàng, faufau da kaɗawa kamar surar conch. Saboda haka, ana kiransa Conch Citadel. "
  17. KIERNAN, BEN (2017). Việt Nam: tarihi tun daga farko har zuwa yanzu. Oxford University Press. p 34.
  18. TAYLOR 1983, shafi. 21.
  19. WATSON 1961, shafi na. 239.
  20. YU 1986, shafi na 451-452.
  21. LOEWE 1986, shafi. 128.
  22. TAYLOR 1983, shafi. 24.
  23. WATSON 1961, shafi na. 241.
  24. NAM C. KIM 2015, shafi na. 5.
  25. TAYLOR 1983, shafi. 25.
  26. GEORGE E. DUTTON 2006, shafi na. 70.
  27. LEEMING 2001, shafi na. 193.
  28. KELLEY 2014, shafi na. 89.
  29. TAYLOR 2013, shafi. 15.
  30. TAYLOR 2013, shafi. 16.
  31. TAYLOR 1983, shafi. 317.
  32. TAYLOR 2013, shafi na 16-17.
  33. PATRICIA M. PELLEY - Vietnam bayan mulkin mallaka: Sabbin Tarihin Tarihin Kasa - Page 50 2002 “wanda ya dogara ga aikin Lenin - musamman Trần Quốc Vượng, Hà Văn Tấn, da Phan Huy Lê - sun buga karatuttukan ɓarnatarwa biyu, Kwaminisanci na Farko da Tarihin Feudalism, daga inda suka yi watsi da the .. aiwatar da su kai tsaye daga mulkin kwaminisanci na farko zuwa feudalism. Byarfafawa daga maganganun Lenin game da ƙasashen Slavic, masana tarihi a jami'a sun dage cewa farawa da sarakunan Hùng da masarautar Văn Lang… a zamanin mulkin An Dương Vương, wanda ya yi mulkin masarautar Âu Lạc, kuma ta farkon matakan wannan Mamayar China (daga 2879 BC zuwa 43 AD, a wata ma'anar) jama'ar Vietnam sun dogara ne da kwaminisanci na farko "
  34. HIGHAM 1996, shafi na. 122.
  35. KIM 2015, shafi na. 219-220.

Bibliography

  1. BALDANZA, KATHLENE (2016). Ming China da Vietnam: Batun Tattaunawa a Asiya ta Zamani. Jami'ar Jami'ar Cambridge. ISBN 978-1-316-44055-1.
  2. BRINDLEY, ERICA (2015). Tsohuwar kasar Sin da Yue: Tsinkaye da Bayyanawa a Yankin Kudancin, C.400 KZ-50 AZ. Jami'ar Jami'ar Cambridge. ISBN 978-110-70847-8-0.
  3. BUTTERER, YUSUF (1958). Dragonananan Karami: Tarihin Siyasa na Vietnam. Masu Tallata Praeger.
  4. CHAPUIS, OSCAR (1995). Tarihin Vietnam: Daga Hong Bang zuwa Tu Duc. Greenwood Latsa. ISBN 03132-9-622-7.
  5. DEMATTÈ, PAOLA (Yuni 2015). "Balaguro da shimfidar wuri: fasahar dutsen Zuo River Valley na yankin Guangxi Zhuang mai cin gashin kanta, China“. Tarihi. 89 (345): 613-628. Doi: 10.15184 / aqy.2014.49.
  6. DE VOS, GEORGE A.; SLOTE, Walter H., eds. (1998). Confucianism da Iyali. Jami'ar Jiha ta New York Press. ISBN 978-0-791-43735-3.
  7. GEORGE E. DUTTON (2006). Tattaunawar Tayan Tay: Societyungiya da Tawaye a Vietnamarnin Sha takwas na Vietnam. Jami'ar Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-82482-984-1.
  8. DUTTON, GEORGE; WERNER, JAYNE; WHITMORE, YAHAYA K., eds. (2012). Tushen Al'adar Vietnam. Gabatarwa ga wayewar Asiya. Jami'ar Jami'ar Columbia. ISBN 978-0-231-13862-8.
  9. ĐÀO DUY ANH (2016) [An fara bugawa a 1964]. Ướt nước Việt Nam qua các :i: nghiên cứu địa lý hɔc lịch sử Việt Nam (a cikin Yaren mutanen Vietnam). Na Nama. ISBN 978-604-94-8700-2.
  10. ĐÀO DUY ANH (2020) [An fara bugawa a 1958]. Yadda ake Rubuta Lambobi: An ƙulla ƙimar ku a cikin ƙarni na XIX (a cikin Yaren mutanen Vietnam). Gidan Bugawa na Hanoi. ISBN 978-604-556-114-0.
  11. FERLUS, MICHAEL (2009). "Mai Sanya ocamus na Dongsonian a cikin Vietnamese“. Jaridar Lungiyar Harsunan Kudu maso Gabashin Asiya. 1: 95-108.
  12. HOÀNG, ANH TUẤN (2007). Siliki don Azurfa: Fassarar Dutch-Vietnamese ; 1637 - 1700. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-15601-2.
  13. HIGHAM, CHARLES (1989). Archeology na babban yankin kudu maso gabashin Asiya. Jami'ar Cambridge Jami'ar.
  14. HIGHAM, CHARLES (1996). Zamanin Tagulla na kudu maso gabashin Asiya. Jami'ar Jami'ar Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-56505-7.
  15. KELLEY, LIAM C. (2014), "Gina Tatsuniyoyin Gida: Ruhohi, Mafarki, da Annabce-annabce a cikin Red Delta na da“, A cikin ANDERSON, JAMES A .; WHITMORE, YOHANNA K. (eds.), Ganawar Sin a Kudu maso Kudu da Kudu maso Yamma: forarfafa Yankin Yankin Fiye da Shekaru Biyu, Amurka: Brills, shafi na 78-106
  16. KIERNAN, BEN (2019). Việt Nam: tarihi tun daga farko har zuwa yanzu. Jami'ar Oxford ta Latsa. ISBN 978-0-190-05379-6.
  17. KIM, NAM C.; LAI, VAN TOI; TRINH, HOANG HIEP (2010). "Co Loa: bincike ne na tsohon babban birni Vietnam“. Tarihi. 84 (326): 1011–1027. Doi: 10.1017 / S0003598X00067041. S2CID 162065918.
  18. KIM, NAM C. (2015). Asalin tsohuwar Vietnam. Jami'ar Oxford ta Latsa. ISBN 978-0-199-98089-5.
  19. KIM, NAM C. (2020), "Hanya don Compleaddamar da Socialarfafawar Jama'a da Statearfin Jiha: Duba daga Kudu maso gabashin Asiya“, A cikin BONDARENKO, DMITRI M .; KOWALEWSKI, STEPHEN A .; Kananan, DAVID B. (eds.), Juyin Halittar Cibiyoyin Zamani. Tsarin Duniya-Tsarin Juyin Halitta da Makomar Duniya, Bugawa na bazara, shafi na 225-253, doi: 10.1007 / 978-3-030-51437-2_10, ISBN 978-3-030-51436-5
  20. LEEM, DAVID (2001). A Kamus na Tarihin Asiya. Jami'ar Oxford ta Latsa. ISBN 9780195120523.
  21. LI, TANA (2011),Bayani game da Siyasa“, A cikin LI, TANA; Anderson, JAMES A. (eds.), Kogin Tongking Ta hanyar Tarihi, Pennsylvania: Jami'ar Pennsylvania Press, shafi na 1-25
  22. LI, TANA (2011),Jiaozhi (Giao Ch) a cikin Yankin Han na Tongking“, A cikin LI, TANA; Anderson, JAMES A. (eds.), Kogin Tongking Ta hanyar Tarihi, Pennsylvania: Jami'ar Pennsylvania Press, shafi na 39-53, ISBN 978-0-812-20502-2
  23. LOEWE, MICHAEL (1986), "Tsohuwar Han“, A TWITCHETT, DENIS C.; FAIRBANK, SARKIN YAHAYA (eds.), Tarihin Cambridge na kasar Sin: Juzu'i na 1, Masarautun Ch'in da Han, 221 BC-AD 220, Cambridge: Jami'ar Jami'ar Cambridge, shafi na 110-128
  24. MCLEOD, MARK; NGUYEN, HI DIEU (2001). Al'adu da Al'adun Vietnam. Greenwood (wanda aka buga a Yuni 30, 2001). ISBN 978-0-313-36113-5.
  25. MIKSIC, YAHAYA NORMAN; YIAN, TAFIYA GEOK (2016). Tsohon Kudu maso gabashin Asiya. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-27903-7.
  26. MILBURN, Olivia (2010). Daukakar Yue: Fassarar fassarar Yuejue shu. Sinica Leidensia. 93. Mawallafin Brill. ISBN 978-90474-4-399-5.
  27. RANAR ROWA, STEPHEN (1979). "Daga Co-loa zuwa 'Yan Tawayen Trung' Yan Tawayen: Viet-Nam Kamar yadda Sinawa suka Sami shi“. Hangen Asiya. 22 (2): 140-164. JSTOR 42928006 - ta hanyar JSTOR.
  28. JAMIESON, NEIL L. (1995). Fahimtar Vietnam. Jami'ar California Press. ISBN 9780520201576.
  29. SARDESAI, DR (2005). Vietnam, Da da Yanzu. Bugun Avalon. ISBN 978-0-813-34308-2.
  30. SCHAFER, EDWARD HETZEL (1967), Tsuntsayen Vermilion: T'ang Hotunan Kudu, Los Angeles: Jami'ar California Latsa
  31. TAYLOR, KEITH WELLER (1983). Haihuwar Vietnam. Jami'ar California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07417-0.
  32. TAYLOR, KEITH WELLER (2013). Tarihin Vietnamese. Jami'ar Jami'ar Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
  33. TERRY F. KLEEMAN (1998). Ta Chʻeng, Babban Cikakke - Addini da Ethabila a cikin Masarautar Shekaru ta Sin. Jami'ar Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1800-8.
  34. WATSON, BURTON (1961). Rikodin Babban Masanin Tarihin Kasar Sin. Jami'ar Jami'ar Columbia.
  35. WU, SAURARA; ROLETT, BARRY VLADIMIR (2019). Al’adun Maritime na Tarihi da Jirgin ruwa a Gabashin Asiya. Guguwar Singapore. ISBN 978-9813292567.
  36. YU, YING-SHIH (1986), "Han na kasashen waje“, A TWITCHETT, DENIS C.; FAIRBANK, SARKIN YAHAYA (eds.), Tarihin Cambridge na kasar Sin: Juzu'i na 1, Masarautun Ch'in da Han, 221 BC-AD 220, Cambridge: Jami'ar Jami'ar Cambridge, shafi na 377-463.

NOTES :
Urces Majiyoyi:  wikipedia.com.
Ban Tu Th Tu ya saita taken taken, ambato, babban abu, babba, rubutun haruffa, hoton sepia mai dauke da hoto - samawariya.et

BAN TU THƯ
6 / 2021

(Ziyarci 1,191 sau, 2 ziyara a yau)
en English
X