Hanoi - Katako - Wasikun gado - Maganganun sirri

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By Farfesa Assoc. HUNG NGUYEN MANH1

  Hanoi, Tsohon Thang Long - tsohon gari, yanzu ya zama zamani. Wanda dubu - dogon "al'adu" tarihi zai yiwu a adana shi a cikin kayan tarihi saboda kokarin al'adun archaeological, al'adu da na tarihi don a adana shi azaman lamuran na kimiya. Koyaya, a bayyane yake saboda katinan gidan waya wanda aka kiyaye, yanayin adadin abubuwan tarihi da titin birni shekara ɗari da ɗari na Hanoi, ya wanzu azaman abubuwan ba da kayan duniya, gwargwadon yadda ƙungiyar al'adun duniya ta kira shi. Hotunan hotunan tarihi ne na al'adun gargajiya na karnin da ya gabata Turawan mulkin mallaka na Faransa in Vietnam. A wannan lokacin da kyamara ta wanzu, sauran hotunan, sun bayyana zurfin tunani game da tarihin ɗan adam… Tun lokacin Columbus, 15th karni, lokacin da Latin America an gano, wanda ya buɗe hanyar ci gaban wayewar duniya ta kan ƙasa mai wadataccen albarkatu na ƙasa. Taron ya yi wahayi zuwa ga masu bincike, mishaneri da Sojojin Turai sojojin balaguro… Duk sun ci gaba ga waɗanda ba a kula da su ba ƙasar Asiya. Sun kula da Vietnam kamar yadda springboard zuwa Mataki zuwa Babban yankin China mafarkin gina karfi da kyakkyawan mulkin mallaka a ruhun wayewa ta hanyar amfani da karfin soja don mamaye, gudanar da mulkoki da yawa a cikin duniya. Gaba daya, Vietnam tare da Hanoi, Saigon a cikin Yankin Indochinese ya kasance yana mai da hankali ga salon mulkin mallaka.

   A gaskiya, da Mutanen Vietnam ya more rayuwa mai wayewa a yanayin yamma kawai kamar yadda marubucin “Bayanai na al'adu da kuma bayan sakamakon turawan Faransawan mulkin mallaka a Vietnam"Ya ambata. Bayan zubar jini da hawaye mai yawa da Mutanen Vietnam ya ba da gudummawa ga darajar ɗaukaka tarihi na gwagwarmayar samun .ancin ƙasa. The Mutanen Vietnam ya sami abin da al'adun duniya da wayewa suka zo da shi Faransa ya tafi!

   Bayan ya ji wani ya kira sunan Hanoi, Ina da ra'ayi cewa amsa kuwwa ce daga wani zamani mai tsawo da suka shude - dubunnan shekarun da suka gabata, amma a zahiri sunan ya kasance daga hukuma Kotun Hue (a cewar wata doka wacce aka sanya ranar 1 ga Oktoba, 1888 na Dong Khanh Kotun) cewa tsarkaka yanki na ƙasar da aka miƙa wa Ubangiji Faransa. A bayyane yake cewa Shugaban Faransa ya danganta da wane dalili ne yasa aka ba da doka don kafa wannan sunan (Yuli 19,1888) domin daukar nauyin hakan tsohon Thang Long kuma juya shi zuwa haya - yanki na riƙewa (Yuli, 19, 1888). Tare da daidaitattun wayewa da ake dasu tare da tsohuwar - ruhun kauna, da Faransa A lokacin mulkin an sa sunayen gargajiya na tituna amma an fassara waɗannan Faransa. Koyaya, an canza wasu sunaye zuwa sababbin sunaye, kamar su Rue Janar de Beylite2 maye gurbin Banana titin2, Cobanere2 maye gurbin Titin Pen2, Rue Jean Dupuis2maye gurbin Mat titi2.

   Lokacin da Faransa sun gina titin yamma da sabbin wuraren zama, sun sanya sunayen janar, sunayen shugabannin da ke mulki, wanda adadin littattafai da yawa suke ci gaba da bayanin halayensu a lokacin da suka kai wa arewacin arewacin yankin hari. kasar na Paul Doumer3, marubucin littafin da gada, sunansa an sa masa suna - the Gadar Doumer. Mazaunan gari na Hanoi tun daga ranar haihuwarsu har zuwa mutuwarsu lallai ya zama ya ƙetare wannan gada aƙalla sau ɗaya. Haka kuma Faransa ya kuma sanya kalmomi masu yawa don tsarin sufuri: mahada (roundabout), Gare (Tashar jirgin kasa), Autorail (lantarki jirgin). Daga nan ne, mutane a ciki Hanoi da kuma cikin Saigon ya fara magana Faransa gauraye da Harshen Vietnamese. Kalmomi kamar tu, ka (ka) ko “mec xa lit"Don tsawata,"sadu da xi (na gode), zakarya (mutane - jawo cab), Marisé (kasuwa), chemin de fer (railwayman), wuta (wuta)… A wannan lokacin mai nuna damuwa tare da jin sha'war mawaki ya sami kalmomi don buɗe hanyar zuwa ƙawancen soyayyar tare da mai sukar halayen haƙiƙa. Gabanin adabin gargajiya. Wannan adabin ya kafe cikin Han (tsohuwar harshen Sinanci) wanda aka sa'an nan aka maye gurbinsu da latin da kuma Faransa. Lokacin Latin America ya canza kafin, Indochina ya canza kowace rana rana bayan haka. Ubangiji ya zo cikin rai. The “Kiɗan zinare ”. Me yasa? Ta yaya "Kiɗan zinare""fashe”Zuciya mai kadaici kamar haka! Me yasa aka dinka ainihin soyayyar kauna, ta soyayya da kuma saukin kai? Me yasa kuma ya kawo irin wannan ƙaunar ta ƙasa kamar haka? Ko da yake gaji da "karshen kasuwar a rufe"(koma baya na) hanyar tsohon koyo da kuma yin nazari a Cibiyar Nazarin Nam Dinh a talata na tsohuwar nazarin Sinanci.
Garkunan 'yan takarar da suka gaza suna tsayawa suna kallo,
Duk wanda yaji dadin wucewar jarrabawar!
A kujera Uwargida Faransa tana jujjuya gindi,
A farfajiyar da ke ƙasa, masu ba da agaji na sama suna haɓaka.

   Ayoyin da basa mutuwagaza”A gaban Ubangiji Yaren Faransa injin mai mulki! Duk da haka, da Sarkin Vietnam Wanda yake zaune a kursiyin zinariya a wuya! Shin da gaske ya fahimci baƙin ciki na rasa mahaifarsa?

   Kodayake an kira shi Hanoi don tunatarwa - ga alama Hanoi ya zama ƙauna ta ƙarni da yawa. Koyaya, ya kasance Tsawan Thang wannan “fowaƙwalwar ɗan adam"Duka Mutanen Vietnam. Aƙalla, Tsawan Thang daga Ly daular (Karni na XI) ya kasance katafaren gidan masarauta mai dauke da katanga, tare da kofofi 4 masu duban hanyoyi 4: Gabas - Yamma - Kudu - Arewa. Game da babban tsari, Tsawan Thang an rarraba ta ta kan iyakar ta zuwa ƙungiyoyin hannu guda 61 na musamman na kayan kere kere ta hanyar sana'o'in hannu daban-daban da kuma ta hanyar kasuwanci da musayar. Amma daga karni na XI har zuwa karni na XV, yawancin rassa na aikin hannu sun zama gungiyoyi na musamman a cikin “sarkar siliki da satin", Yin ain, tagulla, kayan ado, joss - abubuwan takarda,"giay yi”- rhamnoneuron paper, tissue paper… Akwai alsotrades da ke buga zane na mutane, yin fanfo, ko yin giyar shinkafa. Har zuwa Kwanan lokaci, An gyara guilds 36 saboda haka aka sanya sunan babban birni da mutanen birni. Ya zuwa farkon karni na XX an san sunan da Hanoi, tsayayyen kayan sana'a ya sami idanun Nazarin Orient na Faransa, HENRY OGER, wanda ya gabatar da sabuwar hanyar wayar hannu don amfani da alƙalami don yin rikodi da kuma nuna ta hanyar amfani da zane-zane na zane don bugawa, wanda ake kira Dabarar mutane ta Nam (Duwararrun dabaru Anamite)4.

   The Hanyar 36-guilds An samar dashi ne bisa tsarin gudanarwa na al'umma da kuma titin a lokacin rikici, ko ba haka ba? A zahiri, bisa ga takardu yayin mamaye Hanoi, lokacin daga 2 ga Fabrairu, 1947 zuwa Satumba 1954, da Faransa ya raba garin cadel cikin 36 titin-guilds. Daga nan ne, hoton Hanoi ya fara canzawa zuwa salon garin yamma. Kodayake fuskantar ta hanyar yawancin canje-canje na tarihi, hoton da rayuwar Thang Long a zamanin yau sun zama tushen rayuwa da lamirin Ubangiji Mutanen Vietnam. Koyaya, nau'in rabin rabin mulkin mallaka da rabin rikici a cikin jama'a, kamar yadda yawancin marubuta suke ciki Hanoi Kira shi, ba zai iya birkitar da abincin abinci ba inda mutane ke zaune tare a kusa da tire guda, ko kuma ayyukan a jirgi a cikin Hanoi.

   Lokacin nazarin halaye da gabobin mutane, hanyoyi daban-daban na mutane suna ɗaukar childrena ofan uwaye ko mata waɗanda suka rayu har zuwa lokacin da muke so mu zaɓa kamar yadda muke gani a ƙasa.

   A yau, tare da izinin mujallar Xua & A'a (Tsoho - Mujallar Zamani), za mu so mu gabatar da hotunan da aka yi amfani da su azaman lamuni daga tarin tarin Faransa sun yi amfani da kyamarori don yin rikodi. Ba wai kawai da mutanen Hanoi jin daɗin ganin su amma kuma gabaɗaya Mutanen Vietnam da sauran mutane za su iya daukar su a matsayin wani abin tunawa na hatimi na aiwatar da mulkin mallaka Faransa ya za'ayi a tkis m yankin na Gabas ta Tsakiya.

' Hanoi - POSTCARDS, Ka'idodin Fasaha - HANOI, TONKIN - Indochina Faransa - Sashe na 1.

NOTES:

1: NGUYEN MANH HUNG - “Bayanai na al'adu da Tsokaci na ofan mulkin mallaka na Faransawa a Vietnam'', "Tarihin Vietnam a Zamanin Modem”- Babban kwas din da ake koyarwa a Jami'ar Hong Kong ta Kasa, Jami'ar Osaka in Japan a cikin Shirin Nazarin Vietnamese. Dr. HUNG shima ya ba da laccoci akan waɗannan batutuwa a Jami'ar Jihar California ta Fullerton - Amurka, a Jami'ar Incheon - Koriya, Ecole Orientcle Paris - Faransa kuma a yawancin jami’o’i a Kudu East Asia (Thammasat, Jami'ar Kudancin Asiya).

2: A cewar NGUYEN VAN CHUC - Kundin harshen titin a Hanoi - Hanoi Publish House, 2010, shafi na 10 —13.
3: PAUL DOUMER - Cikakken suna Joseph Yusuf ALHNASE DOUMER (1857-1932) Janar gwamnan Indochina da kuma Shugaban Faransa (1931-1932) aka maye gurbinsu da latin da kuma Faransa. Lokacin Latin America ya canza kafin, Indochina ya canza kowace rana rana bayan haka. Sannan ya shigo rayuwa.

4: Wannan shine rubutun don Rarraba Digiri a Doctor na marubucin NGUYEN MANH HUNG. Ya ba da gudummawarsa ƙoƙarin kawo haske ga abin da aka yi imani da shi don ɓoye har abada a cikin gidan ajiya na gaskiya wanda ke ɓoye a cikin Laburaren Kasa in Hanoi da Laburaren Archaeology (kafin 1975) a cikin Saigon, wanda aka ɗauka azaman taska don rufe ido daga yaƙin. Za mu buga manyan litattafai biyu daban daban game da Fasaha na An Nam. (Dabarar mutanen Anamite) a farkon wannan bazara).

BAN TU THU
08 / 2020

NOTES:
Source: HANOI, POSTCARDS - Abubuwan Tarihi, Farfesa Assoc. Dr. en Tarihi HUNG NGUYEN MANH & Collector, Babbar Jagora TRUC SON NGUYEN PHAN, Hong Duc Madaba'oi, Hanoi, 2015.
AN BAN TU THU ne ya saita dukkan rubutun rubutu da hotuna. samawariya.et.

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