VIETNAM, CIGABA DA KYAUTA - GABATARWA

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Na PIERRE HUARD1
da MAGANAR MAFITA2
Cole Française D'Extrême-Orient3, Hanoi.

   ANimal rayuwa ce kawai kai tsaye kuma tabbataccen daidaitawa ga yanayin da ta bar komai a cikinsa. Da mutum, "musamman kasancewarsa“, Ba wai kawai sabawa da milieu ba ne kawai har ma da tawaye watau kirkirar kayan abin duniya da kuma fahimtar abubuwan ruhaniya da nufin tabbatar da dorewar kungiyoyin mutane da kuma kawar da su daga dabi'ar adawa. Don haka, wayewa da al'ada sun dace da haifuwa.

    Cɓatanci yana wakiltar dukan hanyoyin, ƙirƙira da binciken da mutane ke tsara rayuwarsu ta zahiri. A al'ada, a cikin kanta, wani nau'i na rayuwar mutum da kuma ƙawata abubuwan jin daɗinsa, yana da alaƙa da damammakin halitta masu zaman kansu na abubuwan halitta zalla waɗanda wata kabila ke ƙoƙarin bayyana mafi yawan abubuwan da suka fi so, bukatu na ruhaniya da tunanin sararin samaniya.

   Each wayewa yana da tsarin alƙalumansa, yanayin rayuwa da mutuwa, salon rayuwarsa da kuma matakin al'adarsa na musamman. Ba za a iya auna mutuncin ɗan adam da rashin hankali da matsayi mai girma ba, don haka, babban matakin wayewa na iya dacewa da matsakaicin matakin al'adu. A wannan yanayin, akwai kaskanci da kaskantar da ilimi don watsa su ga talakawa. Matsayi mafi girma na al'ada baya yarda da lalata. Yana ɗaga maza sama da kansu don su kasance da yawa gwargwadon yiwuwa don isa ga farin cikin hankali. Yana iya samun ta'aziyar abin da ba shi da mahimmanci tare da dabi'un ascetical. Wannan shine lamarin Vietnam sannan na talakawa da yankin karkara na arewacin kasar ya mamaye. Kamar yadda P. GOUROU4 ya faɗi, “duk da halin da take ciki, ba ya zama a bayyane, kuma ba tare da bincike mai sauƙi na riba mafi ƙanƙanci ba tare da karɓar aiki mara izgili, ya ɗauki ƙirar wayewa da ma'ana, da yawa sun rasa. kasashen da suka ci gaba, da kuma al'adun Sin wahayi zuwa m duk manyan na gargajiya al'adu.

    The K'abilan Biyetnam Al'adu da wayewa don haka ne ya haifar da waccan duniya ta al'ada wacce K'abilan Biyetnam suna cikin lemun tsami iri ɗaya, masu halitta da halittu. Ya dame su, ya ce wayewa da al'ada sun sa kansu cikin tsawon tarihi kuma sun zama, ga nationalan ƙasa da kuma baƙi, “duniya gama gari ga kowa”Wanda ARISTOTLE ya ambata5, ƙungiyar da aka sanya wa ayyukan da ake amfani da su a ciki Vietnam wanda kowa zai iya bayyana kansa Idan wannan ganewar ya kasance bai cika ba, akwai buƙatar daidaito tsakanin mutum da wannan “gama gari”Da kuma tushen rikice-rikice kawai ba za a iya hana su ba.

   Vulgarizing muhimman hujjoji na Rayuwa da Al'adu na Vietnamese wanda binciken ya zama wajibi a cikin duka Franco - Vietnamese makarantu na farko da na biyu digiri na nufin taimakawa wajen fahimtar wani bangare na cewa "duniya“. Anyi amfani da magunguna don wannan kuma muna bin Mista NGUYEN VAN HUYEN bashi6 ɗayan mafi kyawun aiki. H'e ba su da niyyar ba da shawarar aikinsa. Yayin jiran rubutu ta Malaman Vietnam wani Encyclopedia Vietnamese, aiki wanda ya zama mafi mahimmanci, manufarmu ita ce kawai samar da aiki don aiwatar da duk masu sha'awar fahimtar yadda suke al'ada Vietnam ya rayu a da.

   We sun ba da mahimmancin io iconography. Babban aikin HENRI J. OGER7 (1908) da JG BESSON8 (1938) sun taimaka mana kadan. Mun zana babban misalai na misalai namu wasu kuma daga ayyukan banzan duniya na masu kuka GEORGES DUMOUTIER9 (1850-1904), ko daga chreslomalhy na ED. NORDEMANN10 (1914), kuma daga Harshen Vietnamese hanya na TISSOT11. Alkalumman su, tare da halayen soberly jawo, gabatar da yawanci Halin Vietnamese.

   OAikin mu na son rai ya ragu a farkon 20th karni, a wani lokaci inda kamar duk M al'adun gargajiya-Gabas, da Wayewar Vietnam An sami nutsuwa da wannan West. A wancan lokacin, Tattalin arzikin Vietnam kasance rurat kuma, tun shekara dubu ɗaya zuwa dubu biyu sun shuɗe Neolithic, Matsala zuwa zaure a cikin rufe da'ira a waccan Kayan masana'antu. Sauye sauyen shigo da jirgi da na kayan kasashen waje don kayayyakin masarufi, wadanda masu cinye suka cinye, ya kawo mummunan hari, a cikin Vietnam da kuma cikin Turai, kwanciyar hankali na agglomerations wanda ke kan gabaɗaɗe da kansu tare da salon rayuwa da fasahohin da suka zo daga zurfin prehistory (Farashin VARRAGNAC13).

   UA sakamakon sake fahimtar yanayin halittarsu na waje, an mayar da muhimman abubuwan al'adun gargajiya kawai tare da ƙarin ko žasa da tashin hankali. Kyawun yanayin dogaro, wanda aka bayyana a cikin "uba da uwa ''gudanarwa, hud an katse, da K'abilan Biyetnam "psyche"Ya yi matukar girgiza matuka wanda juyin juya hali da yakin basasa ya ba da girma sosai. Bai kamata mu yiwa kanmu mu anan da wannan tashin hankali ba. Dole ne mu tambayi kanmu ko ta wurin taimakon waɗannan wahalolin, da Al'adar Vietnamese ku sami damar, kamar wayewar yamma ta yi tun tsawon lokacin lemun tsami, don bayyana kanta da gaskiya.

   Dko ya gane cewa daya daga cikin ayyukan bil'adama shine filastik, ƙirƙirar sababbin dabi'un al'adu ta hanyar daidaitawa ga yanayi a kowane fanni: kimiyya, motsin rai, kyan gani, addini da fasaha?

   It yana yiwuwa, saboda da yawa K'abilan Biyetnam masu ilimi sun sami isasshen zargi don shiga cikin al'adunsu da gaskiya, juya su zuwa wani batun nazari kuma don haka cin nasarar 'yancinsu dangane da al'adun da aka fada.

     TYin amfani da hanyoyin kimiyya ba ya nufin gaba ɗaya kawar da addini da kuma tsarkaka, irin wannan kawar ta tabbatar da haɗari. Hankali baya haifar da nasa jigogi. Il yana karɓar su daga Tatsuniya, yanayin ilimin tasiri, daidai da ilimin hankali wanda ya kammala. Na yanzu K'abilan Biyetnam Elite dole ne ya tabbatar da dukkanin abubuwan al'adun su, "ba don tsayayya da al'adun kasashen yamma ba, amma don yarda da gaske, da amfani da shi azaman abincinsu maimakon juya shi ya zama nauyi, da masaniyar wannan al'adar amma ba rayuwa ta kan iyakarsa, kamar masu karatun rubutu da masu cinye littattafai (RABINDRANATH TAGORE14). Wadannan fitattu kuma dole ne su fahimci mahimmancin kimiyya da fasaha a cikin tarin mutanen zamani.

   On wannan ra'ayi, Mutanen Vietnamese masu zaman kansu dabaru suna samun kansu, a halin yanzu, a ƙarƙashin yanayi mai kyau don bayar da abubuwan da suka ɓatar da wayewar su mahimmancin cancantarsu. Amma fasahar injiniyanci da wayewa ba ta tsaka tsaki. Suna iya, gwargwadon yanayin da ake amfani da su don kwantar da hankalin mutum daga ɗaurin ɗaurinsa da rayuwar duniya da kuma lalata rayuwar maza.

   Tya akai damuwa, cewa Al'adar Vietnamese lias da aka nuna a ƙarni, don karɓar kowane abu na ketare (Hindu, Sinanci, Cham ko Yammaci) ba tare da ƙoƙarin aiwatar da halinsa na musamman ba, yana ba da garanti na cewa yana da isasshen haɗin kai don yin tsayayya da matsin lambar waje da ci gaba da bayyana ainihin dangantakar da ya kafa tsakanin Uku sojojin Yanayi (Tam tayi): Sama, Duniya da mutum.

BIBLIOGRAPHY :
+ H. OGER. Gabaɗaya gabaɗaya ga nazarin dabarun mutanen annamese, muqala kan rayuwar abin duniya, fasaha da masana'antu na mutanen Annam, Paris, Geuthner, 1908.

+ ED. NORDEMANN. Cutar sankarau, Hanoi 1914.
+ JULES G. BESSON. Zane monoography na Indochina (Tonquin, Annam, Cochinchina), Paris Geuthner, 1938.

+ H. TISSOT. Babban Darasi na Annamese, Hanoi 1910.
+ NGUYEN VAN HUYEN. Annamese wayewa, Hanoi 1943.
+ A. VARAGNAC. Wayewar al'ada da irin rayuwa, Paris, 1948.

NOTES :
Source: Ingantawa na Vietnam Nam, PIERRE HUARD & MAURICE DURAND, Kundin Nazari Na 3 1998, Tasirin Nationale Paris, École Française D'Extrême-Orient, Hanoi - Fassara ta VU THIEN KIM - NGUYEN PHAN ST Minh Nhat's Archives.
◊ Taken taken, hoton sepia da aka fito da shi kuma Ban Tu Thu ya saita duk ambato - samawariya.et

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