Kokarin yin nazarin KARATUN HUKUNCIN TARIHIN KASUWANCIN GASKIYA - Sashe na 2

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… Za a ci gaba…

HUNG NGUYEN MANH

       Vo kinh, kamar yadda aka bayyana, jagora ne na dabarun soja, dabarun yaƙi, ilimin taurari, bayanan yanki, lissafi.

       Gabaɗaya, don zama mashahurin shugaban sojoji, wanda ba kawai ake aiwatar da “Thap bat ban vo nghe” (Goma sha takwas game da wasan tsere) amma kuma sun koyi wasu littattafai kamar su Binh thu Do tran (Jagoran dabarun soja), Luc thao tam luoc (Koyarwar sirri guda shida da dabarun Uku), Binh fatp Ton Tu (Sun Tzu dabarun soja).

       Jagorar dabarun soja a Vietnam shine Binh watan yeu luoc (Taqaitaccen Ka'idojin Soja), wanda galibi ya kunshi “Babban taron mawuyacin halin kunci” ta Tran Hung Dao tare da hadin gwiwar Loc Khe Hau da littafin Yankin Đào Duy Từ Dao Duy Tu.

       An ce a cikin Binh Dinh, akwai wani littafi da ake kira Tay Son binh (Tay Son soja dabara) amma ya ɓace.

       Littattafan koyarwa da koyar da kararraki a Vietnam ba littattafai ne kawai kan dabaru, dabara ba har ma game da "zaɓar kyawawan ranaku, lokaci mai kyau, nazarin sararin samaniya da labarin ƙasa, da sauransu".

       Binh thu (Jagoran soja) ya ambaci abubuwa biyar na tunani, ga alama sabbin dabarun soja, wanda shugaban sojoji ke buƙata ya mallaki:
- Abu na farko shine jituwa, wanda aka ɗauka a matsayin babbar ƙa'idar mulkin ƙasa da fasahar yaƙi.
- Abu na biyu shine dabara. Shiga cikin fagen daga kawai lokacin da aka yanke shawarar dabarun.
- Abu na uku shine yin gaba ko baya. Ba a yarda da jinkiri ba. Rashin jin dadi shine mafi cutarwa a cikin yaƙe-yaƙe.
- Abubuwan da ke gaba shine fasahar yaƙe-yaƙe ba tare da ganuwar, gangare ba, ko yaƙe-yaƙe.
- Abu na biyar shine cewa shugaba ya dauki jarumansa a matsayin nasa gabobin yayin da jaruman ke tunanin shugaban nasu a matsayin kwakwalwarsu.

       Vo ta (Kasuwancin gargajiya na Vietnamese) wani sunan Vietnam ne wanda aka yi amfani da shi a cikin kisan kai hari Dang Trong (Ta Kudu ta Kudu a cikin karni na 17th-18th).

       Yawancin masters na wasan tsere a Kudancin Vietnam (Dang Trong) tunanin cewa Vo ta ya kasance sunan m ga Vietnamese Martial Arts Martial Arts. Sunan ya samo asali ne daga daular d Nguyen Iyayengiji a cikin Dang Trong. A wancan lokacin, an horar da arinan wasan soja da su kasance a shirye don fadace-fadace Dang Ngoai (Arewacin Vietnam a cikin karni na 17th-18th).

       Duk da haka, Ya dafa da kuma Quang Nam la'akari da Vo ta a matsayin tsohon soja, wanda salon wasan Arts na Bach Ho ya saba amfani dashi. Haka kuma, wasu sabbin hanyoyin wasan kwaikwayon ma sunada amfani da wannan suna kamar Bac Vietnam vo, Tien tsawon Quyen dao (kafin 1975).

       Kafin shekarar 1975, da yawa daga cikin masanan suka yi tunanin hakan Vo ta An fahimci ba a matsayin Binciken fasahar Binh Dinh. Wataƙila saboda Binhadin wasan tsere na Binh Dinh ya haɓaka kuma ya zama sananne fiye da sauran salon wasan tsere. Sabili da haka, duk nau'in wasan Martial kamar su Ngoc tran ngan dai (Moc thieu kamar yadda yake), Roi Ngu mon, Lao Mai quyen, Thao quyen An rarraba su a ƙarƙashin fasahar wasan Binh Dinh.

       Akwai wata waƙa da ake kira “Ca quyet vo ta"(Hanyoyin fasahar waka ta wasan tseren gargajiya na Vietnamese) kamar haka:

Hanyoyin wasan kwaikwayo na Martial abu ne mai ban tsoro;
Me yakamata kayi a fada.
Yadda za a buga tare da dunkulenku, kuma yadda za a harbi?
Kai hari kamar guguwa.
Ya kamata ku mallaki abubuwan guda biyar.

Kuma ku sani ta zuciya karfe da wuta.
"Babban harbi, saurin harbi, yajin aiki - sauya motsi da kwanciyar hankali kwatsam."
Shin kun aiwatar da dabaru bakwai na kai hari, dabaru uku na kariya?
Hanyoyi suna da wuya a hakika.

Matsayin mahaya dawakai da na gaba dole ya kasance mai tsauri.
Kuma ku aikata su har tsawon shekara uku.
Daga nan sai a sake aiwatar da siffofin.
Kar ka kushe da kwatance.
Ya kamata ku tuna da kalmomin Ngan dai ngoc tran.
Hanyoyin harin kamar girgije ne ke tashi daga sararin sama.

Kafar tayi sauri kamar tauraro mai harbi.
Daidaita salon faɗa a kowane yanki: an tsare ko babba - yi amfani da shi don amfaninka.
San yadda ake yaudara, san yadda ake buge.
Kasance mutum mai fada.
Zama gwarzo don cin nasara.

Kada ku zama masu nuna kwalliya.
Kasance mai ladabi. Kasance mai ladabi. Ku yi ƙoƙari don hikima.
Zama a lokacin da kuke fuskantar abokan adawar.
An haɗu da ƙarfin zuciya da fasaha mai kyau don faɗakarwa a cikin tunaninmu.

Yi aiki da wasan kare kai yadda ya kamata.
Kare kanka, kare mutanenka, kare zaman lafiya - waɗannan ayyukan har abada ne.

* * * *

       Babban ilimi a Vietnam ya fara dubban shekaru da suka gabata, wanda ya kasance ba da daɗewa ba ƙasashe da yawa masu wadatar al'adun gargaji a Gabashin Asiya kamar Japan ko waje da yankin Asiya-Pacific kamar Amurka, da dai sauransu.

       Abubuwan al'adu na Gabas ta Vietnam dole su kasance masu wahayi ne daga taskokin al'adun gabashin, wanda Indiya da Sin sune ƙasashe masu bayar da gudummawa iri biyu.

       Don haka, shirye-shiryen horarwa ga manyan jagororin rukunin mutane na rikice-rikice a wancan lokacin duk sun kunshi tsarin karatu guda ɗaya, ba wacce aka yi amfani da ita ba: bachelo, masana adabi, ko masters na wasan tsere. Tsarin karatun babban kayan al'adu uku ne: Confucianism, addinin Buddha, Da kuma Daoism (Taoism). Anyi amfani dashi kowane lokaci, kowane wuri, da kowane dauloli, a cikin kowane aji a ƙauyuka (saboda mafi yawan mutane) ko a kotun saurarar karar (ga dangin sarakuna da alkalai). An aiwatar da manyan abubuwan al'adu uku don gina kafuwar tunani da halayen mutane dangane da tsarin Confucian. An yi amfani da su don koyar da mandarins na rundunar sojan ruwa da na soja (Hoto…) tare da tunanin Confucian.

       Wasu mutane har yanzu suna da shakku game da halayen tashin hankali a cikin wannan duniyar rikitarwa. Koyaya, a zamanin yau, masu ilimi da yawa suna haɗa ƙwarewar taushi kamar ƙwarewar halayyar, ƙwarewar sadarwa, jagoranci, da sauransu, cikin shirye-shiryen horarwa don ilimantar da mutanen masana'antu na zamani. Wannan bawai yana nufin cewa tsarin horarwa bane a tsohuwar al'umma ta rashin tunani baya rasa wadannan dabarun. Dukansu mandarins na soja da na soja an tura su ta hanyar falsafar rayuwa, gwanin da ake amfani da shi daban-daban a lokuta daban-daban - “Tien vi quan, thoi vi su"(Kasancewa malamai bayan ya daina kasancewa mandarin) ko “Quan nhat thoi, dan van dai"(Kasancewa mandarins gajere ne kuma yayin da kasancewa farar hula na cikin wani lokaci ne). Ya samo asali daga wannan falsafan, mandan mandarins har ma da mandarins na soja dole ne su sami ƙwarewa huɗu a cikin makarantar kimiyya ta Gabas: Inabi, Y, Ly, So (Kwalejin Confucianism, Magani, Geomancy, Astrology).

       Littattafai na asali waɗanda aka yi amfani da su azaman tushe don horar da mandancin mandarin soja da na soja a waccan lokacin Tu, Ngu kinh (Littattafai huɗu da litattafan tarihi guda biyar). Bayan waɗannan littattafan, dole ne su koya wasu da yawa. Kodayake an bukaci mandarins da ke aiki a karkashin kasawar “trung ju bat tho nhi quan"(Magana mai aminci ba zai bauta wa sarakuna biyu ba), sun kuma kafa tushen asasin falsafar siyasarsu dangane da Confucianism, wanda aka yi amfani da shi azaman don auna hukunci da ɗabi'a cikin ɗaruruwan shekaru na tarihi. Baicin tunanin falsafa kamar Tam cuong, Ngu thuong (Doka uku masu mahimmanci da kyawawan dabi'u guda biyar), Tam .an, Tu duc (Biyayya guda Uku da halaye Hudu), 'Yan Confucians kuma koya da Yi Ching don Feng Shui da damar dama ko yin bayani game da tashi da faduwar daulolin daban daban da rayuwar mutane. Wannan ilimin zai kuma taimaka asirin soja na soja ya zama mafi fa'ida ga jama'a lokacin da suka koma rayuwar farar hula! Akwai masu maganin gargajiya kamar Hai Thuong Lan Ong (sunan haihuwa Le Huu Trac) da kuma Nguyen Dinh Chieu. Akwai wani malamin geomancer kamar Ta Ao wanda ya kula da kaburbura, da gidaje. Akwai wani malami mai ilimin taurari da duba kamar Nguyen Binh Khiem wanda ya shahara kamar Notradamus a Faransa. Kwararrun masana harkar wasan kwaikwayo a lokacin feudial basu banbanta da masana harkar wallafe-wallafen ba. Masana litattafai sun yi bincike Tu, Ngu kinh (Littattafai Hudu da Littattafai Biyar), rahoto da kuma kwarewar rubuta takarda, da sauransu, a kotun masarauta. Masana fasahar kara amfani da dabarunsu a fagen fama. Dole ne su koya game da baka, darts, garkuwa, takubba, mashi, dabaru, ƙyallen hoto, dabaru na fasaha ko na musamman irin su ma'aikatan ɓangarorin biyu, alkalan ƙarfe, allon alkalami, da sauransu. ƙarfin ciki, tunani, da sauransu.

       Gabaɗaya, abubuwan horo sun kasance wani ɓangare na Thap bat ban vo nghe (Goma sha takwas game da wasan tsere).

      Duk cikin shekaru dubbai na tarihi, daga ƙarni zuwa na zamani da na zamani, akwai kusan sau bakwai kawai Vietnam ta sami 'yanci daga yaƙe-yaƙe (bisa ga Ph.D. bayani game da tarihin Vietnam wanda wani masanin Japan ya gabatar, wanda Farfesa Tran Quoc Vuong ya isar). A cikin shekaru bakwai na rayuwa, menene sarakunan Vietnam da mandarins suka yi? Tabbas, sun haɓaka waɗancan bayanan wallafe-wallafen, waɗanda a ciki akwai asalin rubutun lokacin Ly-Tran zamanin.

… Ci gaba…

Bincika Ƙari:
Kokarin yin nazarin KARATUN HUKUNCIN TARIHIN KASUWANCIN GASKIYA - Sashe na 3.

Kokarin yin nazarin KARATUN HUKUNCIN TARIHIN KASUWANCIN GASKIYA - Sashe na 1.

BAN TU THU
11 / 2019

(Ziyarci 429 sau, 1 ziyara a yau)

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