FASAHA NA MUTANEN SUNA - Gabatar da saitin takardu - Kashi na 2

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HUNG NGUYEN MANH
Mataimakin Farfesa, Likita na Tarihi
Sunan Nick: Doki jaka a ƙauyen jami'a
Sunan alkalami: irin ƙwaro

… A ci gaba…

2.1 Sunaye na dama na marubucin aikin & Sigogin fitowar sa

2.1.1 Wannan aikin bincike ne mai taken: "Dabarar jama'ar Annamese by Henri Oger" ya kunshi takardu da aka tattara a Midland ta Arewa Vietnam, musamman a ciki Hanoi a cikin shekaru 1908-1909.

2.1.2 Dukkanin aikin an samu tabbatuwa a ƙarƙashin siffofin bugu biyu:

     a. Kundin littattafai mai taken "Gabatarwa Gabaɗaya ga Nazarin Dabarun Dandalin mutanen Annamese" (1) - Labari akan rayuwar duniya, zane-zane da masana'antar mutanen Annam.

     b. Kundin kundi wanda ke dauke da zane-zanen katako sama da 4000, kuma suna da takensu "Dabarar Annamese" (2) wanda Henri Oger ya kira: "Littafin Encyclopedia na duk kida, kayan kwalliya, da dukkan karimcin rayuwa da ayyukan fasahar Tonkinese Annamese".

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(1) HENRI OGER - Gabatarwa ta gaba game da Nazarin Fasaha na mutanen Annamese - Takaddama kan rayuwar duniya, zane-zane da masana'antu na mutanen Annam - Geuthner, Laburaren da Edita.Jouve da Co. Masu buga takardu - Editoci - Paris.

(2) HENRI OGER - Kayan fasaha na mutanen Annamese - An Encyclopedia na duk kayan kida, kayan aiki, da duk wata alama a rayuwa da sana'ar mutanen Tonquinese-Annamese - Takardar Daily ta Indochina ta Faransa -114 Jules Ferry St. - Hanoi.

Hoto na 15: Gabatarwa ta gaba daya game da FASAHA DAGA MUTANE Sanarwa - Labari akan kayan, fasaha da masana'antu na mutane na shekara-shekara ta HENRI OGER

2.2 Cikakkun bayanai dangane da saitin litattafai masu taken “GABATARWA GAME DA FASAHA NA 'YAN SHI'A' '(siffa 15)

2.2.1 Wannan jerin littattafan da Oger ya rubuta cikin Faransanci kuma aka buga su a cikin Paris cikin kofi 200. Kowane ɗayansu yana da shafuka 159 (Oger ya yi kuskure a cikin pagination kamar yadda a zahiri akwai shafuka 156 kacal), Da kuma zane 32. Daga cikin shafuka 156, 79 daga cikinsu suna ma'amala da hanyoyin aiki, gabatarwa, wallafe-wallafe, sana'o'in 'yan asali da kuma harkokin rayuwar yau da kullun; 30 ma'amala da alamomi da suka danganci fasahar gaba daya, fasahar kasar Sin, wasanni, (fig.16) da kayan wasa, 40 daga cikinsu suna dauke da abinda ke ciki da kuma bayanin kowane ɗayan faranti a cikin Kundin Album da Babban Abubuwan.

Hoto 16: TAMBAYOYI CIGABA DA Alade (Wasan yara na kama alade).
Yara suna tsaye a cikin da'ira tare da ɗayansu a ciki suna aiki kamar alade,
wani kuma kamar damisa a waje

2.2.2 A bangaren gabatar da sana'o'in gargajiya - wani bangare na babban abin da littafin ya kunsa - Henri Oger ya yi bayanin wasu kere-kere irin su aikin lacquer, zane, uwa-da-lu'u lu'u, zane-zanen itace, yin takardu da sauran kere-kere, Oger yayi la'akari da asalinsa daga takarda kamar: parasol da fan fan, zane mai launi, bugun littafi. Sannan H.Oger yayi ma'amala da wasu "Masana'antu na asali" kamar ginin gidan, sufuri, sutturar masana'anta (fig.17), tufafi, rini, masana'antar abinci, sarrafa shinkafa, yin foda shinkafa, kamun kifi da kuma masana'antar taba ...

Fig.17: SADAUKI

2.2.3 Yin ma'amala da sana'o'in 'yan asalin ƙasar, H.Oger ya ba da hankali kuma ya sa ido sosai a fagen fasaha. Ya yi rikodin kowane aiki, kowace alama, kowane irin kayan kida, kuma ya yi tsokaci kan kayan aiki, inganci, batutuwa, yanayin aiki, yawan amfani, da kwatankwacin kayayyakin Japan, China… A takaice, H.Oger ya gama wanzuwa na ayyukan hannu da yawa a waccan lokacin ta hanyar hangen nesan sa wanda ba zai iya kaucewa kasancewa mai ɗan ra'ayoyi ba, kuma ya kai ga ƙididdigar gama gari da nufin bauta wa tsarin mulkin Faransa. Bari mu karanta wasu bayanai masu zuwa:

    a. “Yawancin 'yan kallo da suka rayu a Annam sukan rubuta a cikin rubutattun Journey cewa: Duk masana'antu suna kusan babu su kuma ba su da mahimmanci a Annam. Kuma sun tabbatar da cewa: mu (watau Faransanci) bai kamata ba mu raina gudummawar da mayaƙan asalin toan asalin ke bayarwa ga ayyukan tattalin arziƙin da muke fatan yadawa a wannan ƙasar ".

   b. Oger ya lura. Ba dole ba ne manoma na Vietnam su yi rayuwa mai wahala a cikin shekara guda, akasin haka suna yawan samun ranakun hutu. A irin wadannan ranakun hutu, manoma za su taru su yi aiki a matsayin ginin ma'aikata (fig.18) kuma samfuran da aka kera zasu zama kari na kudi wanda aikin noman shinkafa ba zai iya samar masu ba, musamman irin nau'in shinkafar Indochinese ".

Hoto na 18: MAGANAR CRAFIYA

     c. Menene aikin ginin ma'aikata? A cewar H. Oger: "Guild ya ƙunshi mahimman abubuwa biyu: ma'aikata suna aiki a gida don mai aiki, kuma wannan ma'aikaci yana zuwa gidajen ma'aikata don tattara samfuran su".

     d. A wani babi H. Oger ya rubuta:

     “Vietnam kasa ce da ke samar da zane-zane da yawa, kuma zane a Arewa musamman yana da arha. Don haka, duk kayan aikin yau da kullun an rufe su da fenti mai launi, wanda ke kare su daga matsanancin zafin da ke haifar da lalata kayan katako da sauri (fig.19). Fenti da aka samar bai isa kawai don amfanin ƙasar ba, har ma ana samun wadatattun manyan 'yan kasuwa a Canton don shigo da ƙasarsu ”.

Hoto.19: LATARA

   e. Samun ra'ayi na laceterware na Vietnamese a waccan lokacin, Oger ya ɗauka cewa: “Hanyar dabarun Vietnam ba ta da daɗi da wayo kamar ta Japan. K'abilan Biyetnam ne kawai ya shimfiɗa keɓaɓɓen fenti mai inganci akan abubuwa na katako ko kayan ɗamara, a baya an shafa su sosai, kuma a yi amfani da yumɓu mai laushi don ɗaukar lahani, kuma a sayar wa talakawa kayayyakin. Saboda wannan, abubuwan da wannan layin suka rufe sun kasance sun goge kuma sun kasance m ”

    f. Kasancewa da batun kayan ado, Oger yana tsammanin cewa laceterer ruwan kwalliya kawai ta karɓi shi daga "Alamar Sino-Vietnamese" kamar mai yin zane, "a wurin sa akwai batutuwa da dama da aka shigo da su daga China wanda ya cakuda shi kwatsam". A ƙarshe, Oger ya yi imanin cewa lacquerer na vietnamese baya ƙoƙarin neman sababbin batutuwan kayan ado "Daga magabata zuwa ga zuriya, sun ba wa junan su abubuwa da yawa wanda wasu masanan da ba a san su da su suka gano ba a baya da tsari '

     A wani babi, zamu ga cewa Oger ya mai da hankali sosai ga nau'ikan kayan aiki da isharar…

  g. “Sigar kayan kwalliya wani tsari ne mai sauki. Wannan fasalin murabba'i ne wanda aka yi da bamboo (fig.20). An sanya shi a kan gadaje biyu na zango, kuma za a saka guntun alharkin a ciki. Mutane suna matse ɗan siliki tare da ƙananan zaren da aka zana kewaye da gorar gora. Amma game da zane, an zana shi a gaba akan takarda annamese, nau'in haske da takarda mai kyau. Ana sanya samfurin a kan gorar gora a kwance, kuma ɗayan ya shimfiɗa a kansa takardar shinkafa mai haske ko ɗan siliki. Ta amfani da goga na alkalami, mai kroidre shi yana canja wurin daidai abin da yake a jikin siliki. A cikin binciken binciken da ya shafi mai zanen da ke samar da zane-zanen annamese, mu (watau Faransanci) za mu sake haduwa da wannan hanyar ta fasaha wacce za ta ba mutum damar haihuwa har abada ”.

Hoto.20: HANKALI NA FARKO

     h."Aikin mai yin ado (fig.21) na bukatar wahala da zafin rai da laulayi fiye da hankali. A dalilin haka mutum yakan yi hayar samari ko 'yan mata, kuma a wasu lokuta yara su yi aikin. Aikin da za a yi shi ne don sake ƙirƙirar zane tare da zaren launuka daban-daban. Mai yin zane yana zaune a gaban firam, tare da miƙa ƙafafunsa a ƙarƙashinsa. Yana riƙe da allurar a tsaye a kan ɓangaren siliki kuma yana jan zaren sosai ba tare da barin dattin fata ba. Wannan ita ce hanya don adana zane a cikin kyakkyawar siga kuma mai ɗorewa. Dama a gefensa fitila ce, saboda dole ne ya yi aiki dare da rana don saduwa da umarni da yawa.

Tunani 21: AN EMBROIDERER

     Wannan fitila (fig.22) ya ƙunshi inkpot na inti 2 da aka cika da mai, yana da laka a tsakiyarsa. Mai yin kyankirin Vietnam yana aiki a ƙarƙashin wannan haske mai haske wanda yake da hayaƙi da wari. A dalilin haka, yana da sauƙi a ga cewa ba mu sami wasu tsofaffi da ke aiki a matsayin abin ɗamara ba - kamar yadda galibi ake ɗaukar tsofaffi don yin aiki a wasu sana'o'in mutanen Vietnam.

Hoto 22: LAMP (Ya sanya daga tukunya tawada - farashi: 2cents)

2.3 Game da faifai "FASAHA DA SUNAN (Vietnamese) MUTANE" (Fig. 23)

2.3.1 Aikin kididdiga dangane da zane da wuraren da aka ajiye su

    a. Wannan wani salo ne mai zane wanda bisa ga ƙididdigarmu ya ƙunshi zane-zane na mutane 4577 (XNUMX)1), 2529 daga cikinsu suna mu'amala da mutum da shimfidar wuri, da kuma 1049 tsakanin waɗannan zane-zane 2529 suna nuna fuskokin mata; amma sauran zane-zanen 2048, suna fitarwa kayan aiki da kayan aikin samarwa.

    b. Saitin da aka ajiye a babban dakin karatu na Hanoi ya kunshi juz'i 7 ba ma a ɗaure yake ba kuma ɗauke da lambar HG18 - a da wannan saitin an ajiye shi a ƙarƙashin lambar G5 na babban ɗakin karatu na Hanoi - Wannan ɗakin karatu ya sanya shi a cikin watan Afrilu 1979, a ƙarƙashin lambar lamba SN / 805 tare da tsawon mita 40 70 santimita.

Fig.23: FASAHA NA ANNAMESE (Vietnamese) Mutane ta HENRI OGER
- Encyclopaedia na dukkan kayan kida, kayan aiki, da isharar rayuwa da kere-kere na mutanen Annamese na Tonkinese.

     Wani saitin kuma an adana shi azaman kayan tarihi a Babban dakin karatun Kimiyyar na garin Ho Chi Minh - wani dakin karatu wanda asalinsa wani bangare ne na Ofishin Laburaren Mazaunin Faransa - a karkashin lambar mai lamba 10511 - an sake sanya fim din a karo na biyu a cikin 1975, kuma an ɗaure shi cikin kundin biyu.

   Asali, wannan saitin wanda ya kunshi a wancan lokacin kundin 10, Cibiyar Archaeology ta sanya shi a ƙarƙashin lambar lambar VAPNHY a ranar 24 ga Mayu, 1962 (2) a Alpha Film Enterprise a tsohon Saigon. Koyaya, wannan microfilm ɗin bashi da shafi na 94 kuma yana da shafi 95 a ninki biyu (saboda lahani na fasaha).

     c. Akwai kuma wani mummunan abu mai shafuka 120 da aka daure, ana kiyaye shi a lambar lambar 18 495, wanda aka microfilmed a karkashin lambar lambar SN / 5 tare da tsawon 5m17924, kuma yana ɗaukar hatimin Tsakanin Tsakanin Indochina wanda mutum zai iya duba lamba XNUMX.

     - Wannan shine saitin da aka ajiye azaman kayan tarihi a Hanoi National Library. Abin da ya kamata a kula shi ne gaskiyar cewa a kusurwar dama na shafin farko, ana nuna sadaukarwa ta hannun rubutun H Oger da kansa, wanda ya keɓe littafin ga Gwamna Janar Albert Sarraut wanda ke cewa:

    "Cikin girmamawa aka miqawa Gwamna Janar Albert Sarraut don ya biya bashin godiyata saboda irin kulawa ta mai Girma da kai ga ayyukan bincike na. (3). Birnin Vinh, Maris…, 1912. Henri Oger ”

   d. Ba mu sami damar gano hakan daga wasu kafofin ba, musamman a Paris, amma, a babban birnin faransa, Farfesa Pierre Huard (4) yana da tabbaci kamar haka:

    "Wannan aikin da aka buga a Vietnam bai bi duk wata hanyar ajiya ta haƙƙin mallaka ba, saboda haka, ko da kwafi ɗaya ba a ajiye a Babban Laburaren na Paris ba. Koyaya, saboda godiya irin ta hukumomin Vietnam (na tsohon Saigon), Na sami kwafi da aka kwafa daga babban kwafin da ke ƙarƙashin lambar mai lamba 10511 na Laburaren Ofishin Cochinchinese Mazaunin Mazaunan Cochinchinese. 

    "École Française d'Extrême-Orient" shima yana da kwafi na godiya ga taimakon Sabis na Hotuna- Sashen Tsakiyar Takardun da suka shafi Cibiyar Nazarin Kimiyyar Kimiyya ta Kasa (CNRS) "

     Aikin H.Oger an zana shi a itace kuma ya dauki sifofin kananan katako wadanda daga baya aka buga su akan manyan shinkafa masu girma (65x 42cm); an shirya shafuka 700 ba tsari da rashin tsari, kowane shafi yana dauke da zane-zane kusan 6, wasu daga cikinsu an kidaya su da adadi na Roman, tare da tatsuniyoyi cikin haruffan kasar Sin, amma dukkansu an tsara su da tsari. Adadin kofe da aka buga yana da iyaka ƙwarai: Saiti 15 ne kawai da kuma ƙarami mara kyau. Kowane saiti an ɗaure shi cikin fascicles 7, 8, ko 10. A halin yanzu, akwai saiti biyu kawai da ƙara mai girma a cikin Vietnam (5).

2.3.2 Raba nau'ikan kungiyoyi daban-daban (A cewar H.Oger)

     a. A cikin wannan kundi, Henri Oger ya rarraba abubuwan zuwa rukuni uku na maudu'ai: na ukun farko sune masana'antu ukun (rayuwar duniya), na karshen kuma shine na rayuwa da na jama'a (rayuwar ruhaniya).

1. Kayan masana'antar zane-zane daga dabi'a.

2. Masana'antar da ke tsara kayan da aka zana su daga yanayi.

3. masana'antar da ke amfani da kayan da aka sarrafa.

4. Rayuwa ta yau da kullun.

     d. Game da masana'antar zane-zane na masana'antu daga yanayi, Oger ya samo kuma ya tattara zane-zane 261 (6) da kuma ci gaba da rarrabasu cikin kananan rukunoni 5, ta hanyar abin da noma ke da mafi yawan zane-zane, sannan ya zo sauran bangarorin kamar sufuri, girbi da tara ruwa, farauta (fig.24), kama kifi.

Fig.24

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(1) Mun kawar da kwafin kwafin da wadanda ke nuna ma kananan kankanin kayan aikin da baza'a iya tantance su sarai ba.

(2) a. Mun sami labarin cewa Mr. Phan Huy Thúy, masanin binciken al'adu kuma tsohon shugaban jami'a a Cibiyar Archaeology, ya mai da hankali ga wannan tsarin zane kuma ya aika da microfilm zuwa Amurka (kewaye 1972) don samun ci gaba zuwa wasu kofe. Amma, kasancewar kudin yayi yawa, aniyarsa ta aika irin waɗannan kwafin zuwa duk makarantun ƙwararru da makarantun zane-zane bai cika ba. Bayan haka, Jami'ar Vạn Hạnh tayi amfani da wannan microfilm ɗin don haɓaka zuwa ƙananan hotuna don aikawa zuwa ƙwararrun kwararru a cikin ƙasar da ƙetare. Mai bincike Nguyễn Đôn ya kasance yana tuntuɓar wannan microfilm ɗin tun da wuri.

    b. A cikin Paris, sanannun masu bincike kamar su Messrs. Hoàng Xuân Hãn, Nguyễn Trần Huân, da Pierre Huard watakila sun sami wannan ƙwayar cuta.

(3) A Monsieur le Gouverneur Général Sarraut en hommage respectueux zu le bienveillant intérêt qu'il veut bien apporter à mes études.Vinh le… Mars 1912. Henri Oger.

(4) PIERRE HUARD: Marubucin Faransancin Faransawa, marubuci tare da Orientalist Maurice Durand sanannen sanannen aiki mai suna "Koyo game da Vietnam (Connaissance du Vietnam)", wanda aka buga a 1954 a Hanoi. PIERRE HUARD - Le firaminista de la technologie vietnamienne (Mai gabatarwa a fasahar vietnamese) - Henri Oger - BEFEO - TL VII 1970, shafuffuka 215,217.

(5) Mun sadu da waɗannan saiti biyu a manyan ɗakunan karatu guda biyu: Babban dakin karatu na Hanoi (a cikin 1985) da dakin karatun Saigon (a shekara ta 1962).  Wannan nau'in na ƙarshen har yanzu ana kiyaye shi azaman ɗakunan ajiya a ɗakin karatu na General Sciences a cikin garin Ho Chi Minh (Mun sake ganinsa a cikin 1984).

(6) Waɗannan lambobin an samo su ta hanyar ƙididdigar namu.

Bincika Ƙari:
FASAHA NA MUTANE SUNAYE - Kashi na 1: Ta yaya aka gano wannan takaddun takaddun kuma aka sa musu suna?

BAN TU THU
11 / 2019

(Ziyarci 464 sau, 1 ziyara a yau)
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